Papilionidae: Swallowtails

Subfamily Papilioninae — Swallowtails

Link Butterfly and host plant
link to Pontia beckerii page Battus philenor philenor - Pipevine Swallowtail
Pipevine (Aristolochia spp. ) inc. watsonii
link to Pontia beckerii page
Papilio machaon bairdii - Baird's Swallowtail
Wild tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus)
link to Papilio polyxenes coloro page Papilio polyxenes coloro - 'Desert' Black Swallowtail
Usually Turpentine Broom (Thamnosma montana)
link to Papilio zelicaon page Papilio zelicaon - Anise Swallowtail
Sweet Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), Parsley, Dill
link to Papilio indra phyllisae page Papilio indra phyllisae - 'Phyllis's' Indra Swallowtail
Tauschia parishii
link to Papilio indra pergamus page Papilio indra pergamus - 'Edward's' Indra Swallowtail
Tauschia arguta, T. parishii, Lomatium lucidum
no photos yet Papilio indra fordi - 'Ford's' Indra Swallowtail
Cymopterus panamintensis; TL is Granite Mtns. near Apple Valley
no photos yet Papilio indra martini - 'Martin's' Indra Swallowtail
Lomatium parryi; Providence Mtns in the Mojave Preserve
no photos yet Papilio indra pygmaeus - Pygmy Indra Swallowtail
Cymopterus plants; Dead Mtns.
Link to Papilio rutulus page Papilio (or Pterourus) rutulus - Western Tiger Swallowtail
Several trees, inc. Sycamores and Ash trees (Fraxinus velutina) locally.
Link to Papilio eurymedon page Papilio (or Pterourus) eurymedon - Pale Swallowtail
They do well on Prunus ilicifolia (Rosaceae); also Rhamnus crocea; Frangula californica; Ceanothus cuneatus and C. integerrimus (Rhamnaceae)
link to Papilio multicaudata page Papilio (or Pterourus) multicaudata multicaudata - Two-Tailed Swallowtail
Chokecherry, Ash trees (Fraxinus velutina)
Link to Heraclides rumiko page Heraclides rumiko - Western Giant Swallowtail
Citrus, such as tender leaves on Lemon and Orange trees. Cresphontes egg on Orange tree.
Others
Parnassius clodius nr baldur - Ken Davenport says only two sightings in Kern Co.
Papilio eurymedon - Ken has an undescribed Coast Ranges segregate that is "more yellowish or cream colored."

Note: An important paper published in 2004* placed P. machaon, polyxenes, zelicaon, and indra in the subclade or subgenus Papilio within the genus Papilio; P. rutulus, eurymedon, and multicaudata were placed in subgenus Pterourus; cresphontes, the western populations of which are now recognized as species rumiko, was placed in subgenus Heraclides. Battus philenor remained in a different tribe altogether. Since then, evidence suggests these subgenuses (Papilio, Pterourus, and Heraclides) can be considered genus-level taxons. I tend to go back-and-forth between adopting new names and sticking to current ones when well-known butterflies are involved, as it can lead to confusion.

* Evgueni V. Zakharov, Michael S. Caterino and Felix A. H. Sperling, "Molecular Phylogeny, Historical Biogeography, and Divergence Time Estimates for Swallowtail Butterflies of the Genus Papilio (Lepidoptera: Papilionidae)," Systematic Biology, Vol. 53, No. 2 (Apr. 2004), pp.193-215.

©Dennis Walker